In 1948, famed behaviourist B.F. Skinner wrote a novel called Walden Two about a fictional visit to a utopian society...

But little do few know that some of Skinner's experiment subjects escaped to set up their own society...

You have been given the chance to experience an exclusive tour of this fabled utopia.

Welcome to...

Walden Three

"Welcome visitor! I hope you have an unforgettable trip around the town. Just watch for cars when crossing the road!"
"Make sure to explore the entire town before you go to the school. There you can take a test on what you've learned about Walden Three."
"I double both as an assistant to Dr Abrat and a teacher to interested students in the community. Rather than restrict students to a school lab they perform real research under the eye of the doctor or myself. It is our responsibility to keep the planners informed of theories or research that shows a new way to run the community. We are instrumental in improving life for those in Walden Three."

Walden's greatest scientific mind, Dr. Leonard Abrat travelled extensively in his youth. Even though he spent the majority of his time absorbed in his studies, Leonard quickly gained a reputation across the continent as one of the great partiers of the academic community. He often shouted out his nickname as he entered a room, exclaiming "HERE COMES THE LAD RAT!!"

While working in the London Underground he was caught up in a scandal involving a young ferret from the countryside nobility. Forced to leave both his young love and his career behind him, Leonard emigrated to Walden Three.

Now Dr. L. Abrat is the head of the Research Lab located in the centre of Walden Three. He works closely with his assistant, the ravishingly beautiful Marilyn Manrodent.

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum; Chordata,

The Class is Aves, 'cause wings, they got 'em,

Order is Columbiformes, Family; Columbidae,

The Genus is Columba, but they know where they're goin',

'They are in a species, known as Livia,

guiding missiles, even to Bolivia.

The conditioning process is usually obvious. The bird happens to be executing some response as the hopper appears; as a result it tends to repeat this response. If the interval before the next presentation is not so great that extinction takes place, a second 'contingency' is probable. This strengthens the response still further and subsequent reinforcement becomes more probable. It is true that some responses go unreinforced and [p.169] some reinforcements appear when the response has not just been made, but the net result is the development of a considerable state of strength.

Report on Superstitious Pigeons:

Bird 1 -- made counter clockwise turns in the cage, made two to three turns between reinforcements.

Bird 2 -- thrust its head into one of the upper corners of the cage.

Bird 3 -- Tossing response as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and tossing it up.

Birds 4 and 5 -- pendulum motion of their heads and body -- head was extended forward and swung from right to left with a sharp movement followed by a somewhat slower return.

Bird 6 -- brushing movements directed toward but not touching the floor.

F. NONE of these behaviors had been observed in the birds prior to the conditioning procedure.

The operant conditioning chamber or "Skinner box" is a piece of lab equipment invented by B.F. Skinner and used to study the effects of behavior conditioning on lab animals. The subject is rewarded when it correctly performs a particular behavior; usually it is given food when it pushes a button.

The basic structure of the box is highly adaptable and has been used to carry out various experiments under differing conditions. Such experiments have involved using two or more levers, two or more feeders and devices that apply an additional stimulus to the test subject, like a jukebox that plays music as a reward.

The aircrib is an invention of B.F. Skinner and is used to raise children. Designed in the 1950's it offers a number of improvements over the traditional cot. The aircrib maintains a perfectly comfortable temperature for the child and allows carers to get them to stick to strict meal times. In Walden Two children are left in their aircribs to "cry it out" as was it was a popular parenting technique in Skinners time.
The children take their first steps into a fully behaviourist education at the nursery. Here the older children are taught how to manage their own intake of food before they join the adults in the communal dining rooms at age seven. Each child is taught to only eat at certain times as in Walden Three all meal times are staggered to make the task of feeding the entire populace easier and more efficient.
"I love my fresh new air crib, so crisp and cool on a warm summers day. Ga ga, goo goo, coo coo."
"Push the lever, get a pellet, that's what teacher says!"
"Dr. Skinner subscribed to the idea of a 'token economy' and we use it here at Walden Three with the students. It involves targeted behaviours being reinforced with some kind of token which acts as a secondary reinforcer. This can later be traded for the real enforcer such as a privileged food or activity. This further encourages targeted behaviour as it lets the subject choose the form of their positive reinforcement."
"When I turned two, I was given a lollipop to wear around my neck. It was coated in sugar to tell if I had licked it and I was told that by the end of the day if I hadn't licked it, I would be given a second lollipop. This process was repeated a number of times in order to help me to learn self-control and to make sure I didn't develop emotions like selfishness."
"Here at Walden Three all of our children are raised communally, in the nursery. We have largely eliminated competitive emotions such as jealousy through behavioural engineering and this process begins here. Some visitors become worried that the children don't have much contact with their parents because we don't have a family structure for raising them. The children get plenty of care and attention from me and the other nurses. This has the added benefit of freeing up their parents from childcare duties and making our whole community more efficient."
Skinner felt that the variable rates of learning for individual students caused problems in the classroom environment. He thought that students were not given enough individual attention to cater to their ability. Because a 1:1 ratio of tutors to pupils was unrealistic, he developed the Teaching Machine to teach students in a step-by-step process with gradual positive reinforcement based on their progress.
The Skinner Teaching Machine is used in the classroom. The machine consists of a programme that gradually brings a student through the learning material. The pupil will complete a 'fill-in-the-blanks' mechanism, and will receive some positive reinforcement for correct answers. If they are incorrect, the student will study the correct answer to increase the chance of being correct the next time.
Click here in order to take a test on this teaching machine about Walden Three and behaviourism.
"Here at Walden Three we avoid the rigid administrative style of established education. Students are not graded on their work; this would only foster a competitive environment and promote jealousy and gloating among them. This in turn would have a detrimental effect on their developmental process as citizens of the community."
"Unlike in a conventional classroom, my teacher doesn't provide my actual education. This I get from the Teaching Machine, and my teacher serves as a guide for my individual learning process. They give me an idea of different ways of thinking based from logic, statistics, psychology, mathematics and science! This encourages me to think creatively and to do some further independent learning."
"I think I might use a cumalative recorder to see if there's a correlation between those cars disappearing and then reappearing at fixed intervals..."
"As a Walden Three pupil, I'm encouraged to learn at my own pace in each individual subject. This helps to avoid forcing me to participate in learning material which is above or below my current level of ability. This means I can find out what my real talents are much earlier than is usual, and my teacher can more easily help me in areas that I struggle!"
"R-A-T...Look, I'm learn-ding!"
Planners wield a lot of power within Walden Three. Democracy is not important here and the ordinary members of society aren't given the opportunity to make political decisions. Planners are not however a ruling class, they have the same rights as everyone else.
Labour is just one of six departments here in Walden Three's planning office. The other five include Food, Health, Science, Arts and Education. Each department is run by a planner and together they form the decision making class of Walden Three. Planners choose their own replacements and can stay in their position for up to ten years.
"Why hullo there, welcome to the department of Labour. I'm the planner Jeremiah Bridgestock and this is my office. Us planners do very important work here in Walden Three because the rest of the people aren't interested in getting involved in leadership roles. The most important part of my job is finding ways to improve our society and make it more efficient. I and the other planners change the town constitution regularly if we find evidence that anything will improve life for people in our society."
"Oh, I see you're admiring my shrubbery. Even though I'm in charge of labour for the town I'm still required to do a few hours of manual work a day like each of the other planners, so I work as the towns gardener. All those lovely trees along the streets were planted by me!"
Question 1:

In the lab, experiments are carried out using a box.

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Question 2:

Students at Walden Three can earn rewards through a economy.

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Question 3:

Children are given a to wear around their neck to learn self control.

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Question 4:

Planners can stay in their position for up to years.

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Question 5:

Children are taught primarily through a machine.

Answer Restart Machine?